4. Discretionary decisions and estimation uncertainty

The presentation of the net assets, financial and earnings position, as well as the accounting policies, are influenced by estimations and assumptions. Estimated values and actual amounts may vary – sometimes significantly.

In particular, key estimates and assumptions have been made in defining uniform periods of depreciation and amortisation for the Group, the amount of impairments on receivables, as well as determining the actuarial assumptions for measuring pension provisions. At the same time, it is also highly necessary to make estimates and assumptions to account for provisions or disclose contingent liabilities – particularly with regard to related or potential legal disputes or other pending claims. Estimates, for example, must be made regarding the likelihood of a pending case being ruled in the claimant’s favour, and regarding any payment obligations arising as arecognition the ruling. There is also estimation uncertainty in the recognition of provisions for onerous contracts or imminent losses with regard to whether a loss is likely, and whether it is possible to estimate this loss reliably. For deferred tax assets, the main estimates relate to the taxable profits that will be generated in future. Other significant estimations are made with regard to the issue of whether there are reasons for an impairment of assets or a cash-generating unit, as well as in the implementation of the impairment testing in accordance with IAS 36 with regard to determining the cash flows in the forecast period and the selection of a suitable capitalisation rate. We refer to the corresponding notes to the consolidated balance sheet for the carrying amounts of balance sheet items affected by significant estimates.